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Pivotal GemFire® v8.2

GemFire Querying FAQ and Examples

GemFire Querying FAQ and Examples

This topic answers some frequently asked questions on querying functionality. It provides examples to help you get started with GemFire querying.

How do I write and execute a query against a GemFire region?

To write and execute a query in GemFire, you can use any of the following mechanisms. Sample query code follows.

Sample GemFire Query Code (Java)
// Identify your query string.
 String queryString = "SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion";
 
 // Get QueryService from Cache.
 QueryService queryService = cache.getQueryService();
 
 // Create the Query Object.
 Query query = queryService.newQuery(queryString);
 
 // Execute Query locally. Returns results set.
 SelectResults results = (SelectResults)query.execute();
 
 // Find the Size of the ResultSet.
 int size = results.size();
 
 // Iterate through your ResultSet.
 Portfolio p = (Portfolio)results.iterator().next(); /* Region containing Portfolio object. */

Can I see query string examples, listed by query type?

The following example query strings use the /exampleRegion whose keys are the portfolio ID and whose values correspond to the summarized data shown in the following class definitions:
class Portfolio implements DataSerializable {
   int ID;
   String type;
   String status;
   Map positions;
}
class Position implements DataSerializable {
   String secId;
   double mktValue;
   double qty;
}

Basic WHERE Clause Examples

In the following examples, the status field is type String and the ID field is type int. See Supported Literals for a complete list of literals supported in GemFire querying.

  1. Select all active portfolios.
    SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE status = 'active'
  2. Select all portfolios whose status begins with 'activ'.
    SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.status LIKE 'activ%'
    
  3. Select all portfolios whose ID is greater than 100.
    SELECT * from /exampleRegion p WHERE p.ID > 100

Using DISTINCT

Select distinct Objects from the region that satisfy the where clause condition of status = 'active'.
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE status = 'active'

Aliases and Synonyms

In the query string, the path expressions (region and its objects) can be defined using an alias. This alias can be used or referred to in other places in the query.
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.status = 'active'
SELECT p.ID, p.status FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.ID > 0

Using the NOT Operator.

See Operators for a complete list of supported operators.
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE NOT (status = 'active') AND ID = 2
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE NOT (ID IN SET(1,2)

Using the AND and OR Operators

See Operators for a complete list of supported operators.

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID > 4 AND ID < 9
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID = 0 OR ID = 1
SELECT DISTINCT p.status FROM /exampleRegion p 
WHERE (p.createTime IN SET (10|) OR p.status IN SET ('active')) AND p.ID > 0

Using not equal to

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio WHERE portfolio.ID <> 2
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio WHERE portfolio.ID != 2

Projection attribute example

SELECT p.get('account') FROM /exampleRegion p

Querying nested collections

The following query uses Positions of type HashMap.
SELECT p, pos FROM /exampleRegion p, p.positions.values pos WHERE pos.secId = 'VMW'

Using LIMIT

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.ID > 0 LIMIT 2

Using COUNT

See COUNT for more information.
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID > 0
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID > 0 LIMIT 50
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID > 0 AND status LIKE 'act%'
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID IN SET(1,2,3,4,5)
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM /exampleRegion p, p.positions.values pos 
WHERE p.ID > 0 AND pos.secId 'IBM'
SELECT DISTINCT COUNT(*) FROM /exampleRegion p, p.positions.values pos
WHERE p.ID > 0 OR p.status = 'active' OR pos.secId OR pos.secId = 'IBM'

Using LIKE

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion ps WHERE ps.pkid LIKE '_bc'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion ps WHERE ps.status LIKE '_b_' OR ps.pkid = '2'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion ps WHERE ps.status LIKE '%b%

Using Region Entry Keys and Values

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion.keys k WHERE k.ID = 1
SELECT entry.value FROM /exampleRegion.entries entry WHERE entry.key = '1'
SELECT key, positions FROM /exampleRegion.entrySet, value.positions.values positions 
WHERE positions.mktValue >= 25.00
SELECT DISTINCT entry.value FROM /exampleRegion.entries entry WHERE entry.key = '1'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion.entries entry WHERE entry.value.ID > 1
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion.keySet key WHERE key = '1'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion.values portfolio 
WHERE portfolio.status = 'active'

Nested Queries

IMPORT "query".Portfolio;
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion, (SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p TYPE Portfolio, p.positions 
WHERE value!=null)
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM (SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolios, positions pos) 
WHERE pos.value.secId = 'IBM'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio 
WHERE portfolio.ID IN (SELECT p2.ID FROM /exampleRegion2 p2 WHERE p2.ID > 1)
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p, (SELECT DISTINCT pos 
FROM /exampleRegion x, x.positions.values pos WHERE x.ID = p.ID ) AS itrX

Query the results of a FROM clause expression

SELECT DISTINCT * FROM (SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /Portfolios ptf, positions pos) p 
WHERE p.get('pos').value.secId = 'IBM'
Hash Map Query
Query using a hashmap. In the following examples, 'version' is one of the keys in the hashmap.
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p['version'] = '1.0'
SELECT entry.key, entry.value FROM /exampleRegion.entries entry 
WHERE entry.value['version'] = '100'

Map example where "map" is a nested HashMap object

SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.portfolios['key2'] >= 3

Example Queries that Fetch Array Values

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.names[0] = 'aaa'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.collectionHolderMap.get('1').arr[0] = '0'

Using ORDER BY (and ORDER BY with LIMIT)

You must use the DISTINCT keyword with ORDER BY queries.

SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID < 101 ORDER BY ID
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID < 101 ORDER BY ID asc
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE ID < 101 ORDER BY ID desc
SELECT DISTINCT key.ID, key.status AS st FROM /exampleRegion.keys key 
WHERE key.status = 'inactive' ORDER BY key.status desc, key.ID LIMIT 1
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p ORDER BY p.getP1().secId, p.ID dec, p.ID LIMIT 9
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p ORDER BY p.ID, val.secId LIMIT 1
SELECT DISTINCT e.key FROM /exampleRegion.entrySet e ORDER BY e.key.ID desc, e.key.pkid desc
SELECT DISTINCT p.names[1] FROM /exampleRegion p ORDER BY p.names[1]

Join Queries

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio1, /exampleRegion2 portfolio2 
WHERE portfolio1.status = portfolio2.status
SELECT portfolio1.ID, portfolio2.status FROM /exampleRegion portfolio1, /exampleRegion2 portfolio2 
WHERE portfolio1.status = portfolio2.status
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio1, portfolio1.positions.values positions1, 
/exampleRegion2 portfolio2, portfolio2.positions.values positions2 WHERE positions1.secId = positions1.secId
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio1, portfolio1.positions.values positions1, 
/exampleRegion2 portfolio2, portfolio2.positions.values positions2 WHERE portfolio1.ID = 1 
AND positions1.secId = positions1.secId
SELECT DISTINCT a, b.price FROM /exampleRegoin1 a, /exampleRegion2 b WHERE a.price = b.price

Using AS

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p, p.positions.values AS pos WHERE pos.secId != '1'

Using TRUE

SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /Portfolios WHERE TRUE

Using IN and SET

See also IN and SET.

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio WHERE portfolio.ID IN SET(1, 2)
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio, portfolio.positions.values positions 
WHERE portfolio.Pk IN SET ('1', '2') AND positions.secId = '1'
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio, portfolio.positions.values positions 
WHERE portfolio.Pk IN SET ('1', '2') OR positions.secId IN SET ('1', '2', '3')
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio, portfolio.positions.values positions 
WHERE portfolio.Pk IN SET ('1', '2') OR positions.secId IN SET ('1', '2', '3') 
AND portfolio.status = 'active'

Querying for Set values

In the following query, sp is of type Set.
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE sp = set('20', '21', '22')
If the Set (sp) only contains '20' and '21', then the query will evaluate to false. The query compares the two sets and looks for the presence of elements in both sets.
For other collection types like list (sp is of type List), the query can be written as follows:
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE sp.containsAll(set('20', '21', '22'))
Invoking Methods on Objects

See Method Invocations for more information.

SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.length > 1
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.positions.size >= 2
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.positions.isEmpty
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.name.startsWith('Bo')
Using Query-Level Debugging

To set debugging on the query level, add the <trace> keyword before the query. (If you are using an IMPORT statement, include it before the IMPORT).

<trace>
SELECT * from /exampleRegion, positions.values TYPE myclass

Using Reserved Words in Queries

To access any method, attribute, or named object that has the same name as a query language reserved word, enclose the name within double quotation marks.
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE status = 'active' AND "type" = 'XYZ'
SELECT DISTINCT "type" FROM /exampleRegion WHERE status = 'active'

Using IMPORT

In the case where the same class name resides in two different namescopes (packages), there needs to be a means of referring to different classes of the same name. The IMPORT statement is used to establish a namescope for a class in a query.

IMPORT package.Position;
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion, positions.values positions TYPE Position WHERE positions.mktValue >= 25.00

Using TYPE

Specifying object type helps the query engine to process the query at optimal speed. Apart from specifying the object types during configuration (using key-constraint and value-constraint), type can be explicitly specified in the query string.

SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion, positions.values positions TYPE Position WHERE positions.mktValue >= 25.00

Using ELEMENT

Using ELEMENT(expr) extracts a single element from a collection or array. This function throws a FunctionDomainException if the argument is not a collection or array with exactly one element.

ELEMENT(SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE id = 'XYZ-1').status = 'active'

Which APIs should I use to write my queries?

If you are querying a Java application’s local cache or querying other members, use com.gemstone.gemfire.cache.Cache.getQueryService.

If you are writing a Java client to server query, use com.gemstone.gemfire.cache.client.Pool.getQueryService.

If you are writing a native client to server query, use the .NET C# API or the C++ API.

How do I invoke an object's method in a query?

To use a method in a query, use the attribute name that maps to the public method you want to invoke. For example:
/*valid method invocation*/ 
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.positions.size >= 2 - maps to positions.size()

Can I invoke a static method on an object in a query?

No, you cannot invoke a static method on an object. For example, the following query is invalid.
/*invalid method invocation*/
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE aDay = Day.Wednesday
To work around this limitation, write a reusable query that uses a query bind parameter to invoke the static method. Then at query run time, set the parameter to the static method invocation (Day.Wednesday). For example:
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE aDay = $1

How do I write a reusable query?

Using query APIs, you can set query bind parameters that are passed values at query run time. For example:
// Identify your query string.
 String queryString = SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion p WHERE p.status = $1;

// Get QueryService from Cache.
QueryService queryService = cache.getQueryService();

// Create the Query Object.
Query query = queryService.newQuery(queryString);

// Set query parameters.
Object[] params = new Object[1];
params[0] = "active";

// Execute Query locally. Returns results set.
SelectResults results = (SelectResults)query.execute(params);

// Find the Size of the ResultSet.
 int size = results.size();

If you use a query bind parameter in place of a region path in your path expression, the parameter value must reference a collection (and not a String such as the name of the region path.)

See Using Query Bind Parameters for more details.

When should I create indexes to use in my queries?

Determine whether your query’s performance will benefit from an index. For example, in the following query, an index on pkid can speed up the query.
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM /exampleRegion portfolio WHERE portfolio.pkid = '123'

How do I create an index?

An index can be created programmatically using APIs or by using xml. Here are two examples:

Sample Code
QueryService qs = cache.getQueryService();
 qs.createIndex("myIndex", "status", "/exampleRegion");
 qs.createKeyIndex("myKeyIndex", "id", "exampleRegion");
For more information on using this API, see the GemFire JavaDocs.
Sample XML
<region name="portfolios">
 <region-attributes . . . >
 </region-attributes>
 <index name="myIndex">
 <functional from-clause="/exampleRegion" 
     expression="status"/>
 </index>
 <index name="myKeyIndex">
 <primary-key field="id"/>
 </index>
 <entry>
For more details on indexes, see Working with Indexes.

Can I create indexes on overflow regions?

You can create indexes on overflow regions, but you are subject to some limitations. For example, the data contained in the index itself cannot be overflowed to disk. See Using Indexes with Overflow Regions for more information.

Can I query a partitioned region? Can I perform a join query on a partitioned region?

You can query partitioned regions, but there are some limitations. You cannot perform join queries on partitioned regions, however you can perform equi-join queries on colocated partitioned regions by executing a function on a local data set.

For a full list of restrictions, see Partitioned Region Query Restrictions.

How can I improve the performance of a partitioned region query?

If you know the data you need to query, you can target particular nodes in your queries (thus reducing the number of servers the query needs to access) by executing the query with the FunctionService. See Querying a Partitioned Region on a Single Node for details. If you are querying data that has been partitioned by a key or specific field, you should first create a key index and then execute the query using the FunctionService with the key or field as a filter. See Optimizing Queries on Data Partitioned by a Key or Field Value.

Which query language elements are supported in GemFire?

AND

AS

COUNT

DISTINCT

ELEMENT

FROM

<HINT>

IMPORT

IN

IS_DEFINED

IS_UNDEFINED

LIMIT

LIKE

NOT

NVL

OR

ORDER BY

SELECT

SET

<TRACE>

TRUE

TO_DATE

TYPE

WHERE

For more information and examples on using each supported keyword, see Supported Keywords.

How do I debug queries?

You can debug a specific query at the query level by adding the <trace> keyword before the query string that you want to debug. Here is an example:
<trace> SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion
You can also write:
<TRACE> SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion
When the query is executed, GemFire will log a message in $GEMFIRE_DIR/system.log with the following information:
[info 2011/08/29 11:24:35.472 PDT CqServer <main> tid=0x1] Query Executed in 9.619656 ms; rowCount = 99; 
indexesUsed(0) "select *  from /exampleRegion" 
If you want to enable debugging for all queries, you can enable query execution logging by setting a System property on the command line during start-up:
gfsh>start server --name=server_name -–J=-Dgemfire.Query.VERBOSE=true
Or you can set the property programmatically:
System.setProperty("gemfire.Query.VERBOSE","true");

Can I use implicit attributes or methods in my query?

If an implicit attribute or method name can only be associated with one untyped iterator, the GemFire query processor will assume that it is associated with that iterator. However, if more than one untyped iterator is in scope, then the query will fail with a TypeMismatchException. The following query fails because the query processor does not fully type expressions:
select distinct value.secId from /pos , getPositions(23)

The following query, however, succeeds because the iterator is either explicitly named with a variable or it is typed:
select distinct e.value.secId from /pos , getPositions(23) e

Can I instruct the query engine to use specific indexes with my queries?

Using HINT indexname allows you to instruct the query engine to prefer and filter results from the specified indexes. If you provide multiple index names, the query engine will use all available indexes but prefer the specified indexes.
<HINT 'IDIndex'> SELECT * FROM /Portfolios p WHERE p.ID > 10 AND p.owner = 'XYZ'
<HINT 'IDIndex', 'OwnerIndex'> SELECT * FROM /Portfolios p WHERE p.ID > 10 AND p.owner = 'XYZ' AND p.value < 100

How do I perform a case-insensitive search on a field in OQL?

You can use the Java String class methods toUpperCase and toLowerCase to transform fields where you want to perform a case-insensitive search. For example:
SELECT entry.value FROM /exampleRegion.entries entry WHERE entry.value.toUpperCase LIKE '%BAR%'
or
SELECT * FROM /exampleRegion WHERE foo.toLowerCase LIKE '%bar%'